by the earth, men;
by the sea, troublesome spirits;
by trees and fields, the Gentiles,
who were to believe...
The meaning is, that as the salvation was universal, so he would have the joy to be universal.
He incites all creatures to rejoice for Christ's coming both for the first and the second;
for the first, in which He consecrated all things;
for the second, at which He will free all things from corruption."
"For the anxious longing of the creation waits eagerly for the revealing of the sons of God.
For the creation was subjected to futility, not of its own will,
but because of Him who subjected it, in hope
that the creation itself also will be set free from its slavery to corruption
into the freedom of the glory of the children of God.
For we know that the whole creation groans
and suffers the pains of childbirth together until now."